Managing Images

An image stream comprises any number of container images identified by tags. It presents a single virtual view of related images, similar to a Docker image repository.

By watching an image stream, builds and deployments can receive notifications when new images are added or modified and react by performing a build or deployment, respectively.

There are many ways you can interact with images and set up image streams, depending on where the images' registries are located, any authentication requirements around those registries, and how you want your builds and deployments to behave. The following sections cover a range of these topics.

Tagging Images

Before working with AusNimbus image streams and their tags, it will help to first understand image tags in the context of Docker generally.

Container images can have names added to them that make it more intuitive to determine what they contain, called a tag. Using a tag to specify the version of what is contained in the image is a common use case. If you have an image named ruby, you could have a tag named 2.0 for 2.0 version of Ruby, and another named latest to indicate literally the latest built image in that repository overall.

When interacting directly with images using the docker CLI, the docker tag command can add tags, which essentially adds an alias to an image that can consist of several parts. Those parts can include:

<registry_server>/<user_name>/<image_name>:<tag>

The <user_name> part in the above could also refer to a project if the image is being stored in an AusNimbus environment with an internal registry.

AusNimbus provides the oc tag command, which is similar to the docker tag command, but operates on image streams instead of directly on images.

Adding Tags to Image Streams

Keeping in mind that an image stream in AusNimbus comprises zero or more container images identified by tags, you can add tags to an image stream using the oc tag command:

$ oc tag <source> <destination>

For example, to configure the ruby image’s latest tag to always refer to the current image for the tag 2.0:

$ oc tag ruby:latest ruby:2.0

There are different types of tags available. The default behavior uses a permanent tag, which points to a specific image in time; even when the source changes, it will not reflect in the destination tag.

A tracking tag means the destination tag’s metadata will be imported during the import. To ensure the destination tag is updated whenever the source tag changes, use the --alias=true flag:

$ oc tag --alias=true <source> <destination>

You can also add the --scheduled=true flag to have the destination tag be refreshed (i.e., re-imported) periodically. The period is configured globally at system level.

If you want to instruct Docker to always fetch the tagged image from the integrated registry, use --reference-policy=local. The registry uses the pull-through feature to serve the image to the client. By default, the image blobs are mirrored locally by the registry.

Tag Naming

Images evolve over time and the tag reflects this. It always points to the latest image built. If there is too much information embedded in a tag name (for example, v2.0.1-may-2016), the tag will point to just one revision of an image and will never be updated. Using default image pruning options, such an image will never be removed. Instead, if the tag is named v2.0, more image revisions are more likely. This results in longer tag history and, therefore, the image pruner will more likely remove old and unused images.

Although tag naming convention is up to you, here are a few examples:

Description Example

Revision

v2.0.1

Architecture

v2.0-x86_64

Base image

v1.2-centos7

If you require dates in tag names, periodically inspect old and unsupported images and istags and remove them. Otherwise, you might experience increasing resource usage caused by old images.

Removing Tags from Image Streams

To remove a tag completely from an image stream run:

$ oc delete istag/ruby:latest

or:

$ oc tag -d ruby:latest

Referencing Images in Image Streams

Images can be referenced in image streams using the following reference types:

  • An ImageStreamTag is used to reference or retrieve an image for a given image stream and tag. It uses the following convention for its name:

    <image_stream_name>:<tag>
    
  • An ImageStreamImage is used to reference or retrieve an image for a given image stream and image name. It uses the following convention for its name:

    <image_stream_name>@<id>
    

    The <id> is an immutable identifier for a specific image, also called a digest.

  • A DockerImage is used to reference or retrieve an image for a given external registry. It uses standard Docker pull specification for its name, e.g.:

    ausnimbus/s2i-ruby:2.0
    

    Note

    When no tag is specified, it is assumed the latest tag will be used.

    You can also reference a third-party registry:

    registry.access.redhat.com/rhel7:latest
    

    Or an image with a digest:

    ausnimbus/s2i-ruby@sha256:3a335d7d8a452970c5b4054ad7118ff134b3a6b50a2bb6d0c07c746e8986b28e
    

When viewing example image stream definitions, you may notice they contain definitions of ImageStreamTag and references to DockerImage, but nothing related to ImageStreamImage.

This is because the ImageStreamImage objects are automatically created in AusNimbus whenever you import or tag an image into the image stream. You should never have to explicitly define an ImageStreamImage object in any image stream definition that you use to create image streams.

You can view an image’s object definition by retrieving an ImageStreamImage definition using the image stream name and ID:

$ oc export isimage <image_stream_name>@<id>

Note

You can find valid <id> values for a given image stream by running:

$ oc describe is <image_stream_name>

For example, from the ruby image stream asking for the ImageStreamImage with the name and ID of ruby@3a335d7:

$ oc export isimage ruby@3a335d7

apiVersion: v1
image:
  dockerImageLayers:
  - name: sha256:a3ed95caeb02ffe68cdd9fd84406680ae93d633cb16422d00e8a7c22955b46d4
    size: 0
  - name: sha256:ee1dd2cb6df21971f4af6de0f1d7782b81fb63156801cfde2bb47b4247c23c29
    size: 196634330
  - name: sha256:a3ed95caeb02ffe68cdd9fd84406680ae93d633cb16422d00e8a7c22955b46d4
    size: 0
  - name: sha256:a3ed95caeb02ffe68cdd9fd84406680ae93d633cb16422d00e8a7c22955b46d4
    size: 0
  - name: sha256:ca062656bff07f18bff46be00f40cfbb069687ec124ac0aa038fd676cfaea092
    size: 177723024
  - name: sha256:63d529c59c92843c395befd065de516ee9ed4995549f8218eac6ff088bfa6b6e
    size: 55679776
  dockerImageMetadata:
    Architecture: amd64
    Author: SoftwareCollections.org <sclorg@redhat.com>
    Config:
      Cmd:
      - /bin/sh
      - -c
      - $STI_SCRIPTS_PATH/usage
      Entrypoint:
      - container-entrypoint
      Env:
      - PATH=/opt/app-root/src/bin:/opt/app-root/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin
      - STI_SCRIPTS_URL=image:///usr/libexec/s2i
      - STI_SCRIPTS_PATH=/usr/libexec/s2i
      - HOME=/opt/app-root/src
      - BASH_ENV=/opt/app-root/etc/scl_enable
      - ENV=/opt/app-root/etc/scl_enable
      - PROMPT_COMMAND=. /opt/app-root/etc/scl_enable
      - RUBY_VERSION=2.2
      ExposedPorts:
        8080/tcp: {}
      Image: d9c3abc5456a9461954ff0de8ae25e0e016aad35700594714d42b687564b1f51
      Labels:
        build-date: 2015-12-23
        io.k8s.description: Platform for building and running Ruby 2.2 applications
        io.k8s.display-name: Ruby 2.2
        io.openshift.builder-base-version: 8d95148
        io.openshift.builder-version: 8847438ba06307f86ac877465eadc835201241df
        io.openshift.expose-services: 8080:http
        io.openshift.s2i.scripts-url: image:///usr/libexec/s2i
        io.openshift.tags: builder,ruby,ruby22
        io.s2i.scripts-url: image:///usr/libexec/s2i
        license: GPLv2
        name: CentOS Base Image
        vendor: CentOS
      User: "1001"
      WorkingDir: /opt/app-root/src
    ContainerConfig: {}
    Created: 2016-01-26T21:07:27Z
    DockerVersion: 1.8.2-el7
    Id: 57b08d979c86f4500dc8cad639c9518744c8dd39447c055a3517dc9c18d6fccd
    Parent: d9c3abc5456a9461954ff0de8ae25e0e016aad35700594714d42b687564b1f51
    Size: 430037130
    apiVersion: "1.0"
    kind: DockerImage
  dockerImageMetadataVersion: "1.0"
  dockerImageReference: centos/ruby-22-centos7@sha256:3a335d7d8a452970c5b4054ad7118ff134b3a6b50a2bb6d0c07c746e8986b28e
  metadata:
    creationTimestamp: 2016-01-29T13:17:45Z
    name: sha256:3a335d7d8a452970c5b4054ad7118ff134b3a6b50a2bb6d0c07c746e8986b28e
    resourceVersion: "352"
    uid: af2e7a0c-c68a-11e5-8a99-525400f25e34
kind: ImageStreamImage
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  name: ruby@3a335d7
  namespace: openshift
  selflink: /oapi/v1/namespaces/openshift/imagestreamimages/ruby@3a335d7

Importing Tag and Image Metadata

An image stream can be configured to import tag and image metadata from an image repository in an external Docker image registry. You can do this using a few different methods.

  • You can manually import tag and image information with the oc import-image command using the --from option:

    $ oc import-image <image_stream_name>[:<tag>] --from=<docker_image_repo> --confirm
    

    For example:

    $ oc import-image my-ruby --from=docker.io/openshift/ruby-20-centos7 --confirm
    The import completed successfully.
    
    Name:           my-ruby
    Created:        Less than a second ago
    Labels:         <none>
    Annotations:        openshift.io/image.dockerRepositoryCheck=2016-05-06T20:59:30Z
    Docker Pull Spec:   172.30.94.234:5000/demo-project/my-ruby
    
    Tag Spec                    Created         PullSpec                            Image
    latest  docker.io/openshift/ruby-20-centos7 Less than a second ago  docker.io/openshift/ruby-20-centos7@sha256:772c5bf9b2d1e8...    <same>
    

    You can also add the --all flag to import all tags for the image instead of just latest.

  • Like most objects in AusNimbus, you can also write and save a JSON or YAML definition to a file then create the object using the CLI. Set the spec.dockerImageRepository field to the Docker pull spec for the image:

    apiVersion: "v1"
    kind: "ImageStream"
    metadata:
      name: "my-ruby"
    spec:
      dockerImageRepository: "docker.io/openshift/ruby-20-centos7"
    

    Then create the object:

    $ oc create -f <file>
    

When you create an image stream that references an image in an external Docker registry, AusNimbus communicates with the external registry within a short amount of time to get up to date information about the image.

After the tag and image metadata is synchronized, the image stream object would look similar to the following:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ImageStream
metadata:
  name: my-ruby
  namespace: demo-project
  selflink: /oapi/v1/namespaces/demo-project/imagestreams/my-ruby
  uid: 5b9bd745-13d2-11e6-9a86-0ada84b8265d
  resourceVersion: '4699413'
  generation: 2
  creationTimestamp: '2016-05-06T21:34:48Z'
  annotations:
    openshift.io/image.dockerRepositoryCheck: '2016-05-06T21:34:48Z'
spec:
  dockerImageRepository: docker.io/openshift/ruby-20-centos7
  tags:
    -
      name: latest
      annotations: null
      from:
        kind: DockerImage
        name: 'docker.io/openshift/ruby-20-centos7:latest'
      generation: 2
      importPolicy: {  }
status:
  dockerImageRepository: '172.30.94.234:5000/demo-project/my-ruby'
  tags:
    -
      tag: latest
      items:
        -
          created: '2016-05-06T21:34:48Z'
          dockerImageReference: 'docker.io/openshift/ruby-20-centos7@sha256:772c5bf9b2d1e8e80742ed75aab05820419dc4532fa6d7ad8a1efddda5493dc3'
          image: 'sha256:772c5bf9b2d1e8e80742ed75aab05820419dc4532fa6d7ad8a1efddda5493dc3'
          generation: 2

You can set a tag to query external registries at a scheduled interval to synchronize tag and image metadata by setting the --scheduled=true flag with the oc tag command as mentioned in Adding Tags to Image Streams.

Alternatively, you can set importPolicy.scheduled to true in the tag’s definition:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ImageStream
metadata:
  name: ruby
spec:
  tags:
  - from:
      kind: DockerImage
      name: openshift/ruby-20-centos7
    name: latest
    importPolicy:
      scheduled: true

Importing Images from Insecure Registries

An image stream can be configured to import tag and image metadata from insecure image registries, such as those signed with a self-signed certificate or using plain HTTP instead of HTTPS.

To configure this, add the openshift.io/image.insecureRepository annotation and set it to true. This setting bypasses certificate validation when connecting to the registry:

kind: ImageStream
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: ruby
  annotations:
    openshift.io/image.insecureRepository: "true"
  spec:
    dockerImageRepository: my.repo.com:5000/myimage
  • Set the openshift.io/image.insecureRepository annotation to true

Important

This option instructs integrated registry to fall back to an insecure transport for any external image tagged in the image stream when serving it, which is dangerous. If possible, avoid this risk by marking just an istag as insecure.

ImageStream Tag Policies

Insecure Tag Import Policy

The above annotation applies to all images and tags of a particular ImageStream. For a finer-grained control, policies may be set on istags. Set importPolicy.insecure in the tag’s definition to true to allow a fall-back to insecure transport just for images under this tag.

Note

The fall-back to insecure transport for an image under particular istag will be enabled either when the image stream is annotated as insecure or the istag has insecure import policy. The importPolicy.insecure` set to false can not override the image stream annotation.

Reference Policy

The Reference Policy allows you to specify where the image consumers will pull from. It is only applicable to remote images (those imported from external registries). There are two options to choose from, Local and Source.

The Source policy instructs clients to pull directly from the source registry of the image. The integrated registry is not involved unless the image is managed by the cluster. (It is not an external image.) This is the default policy.

The Local policy instructs clients to always pull from the integrated registry. This is useful if you want to pull from external insecure registries without modifying Docker daemon settings.

The pull-through feature of the registry serves the remote image to the client. Additionally, all the blobs are mirrored for faster access later.

You can set the policy in a specification of image stream tag as referencePolicy.type.

kind: ImageStream
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: ruby
  tags:
  - from:
      kind: DockerImage
      name: my.repo.com:5000/myimage
    name: mytag
    importPolicy:
      insecure: true
    referencePolicy:
      type: Local
  • Set tag mytag to use an insecure connection to that registry.

  • Set tag mytag to use integrated registry for pulling external images. If the reference policy type is set to Source, clients fetch the image directly from my.repo.com:5000/myimage.

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